Many people, when planning their estates, simply divide their assets equally among their children. But “equal” may not necessarily mean “fair.” It all depends on your family’s circumstances. Specifically, providing for grandchildren is one area where equal treatment may inadvertently result in unfairness.

Consider this scenario

Bob has two adult children, Ted and Carol. Ted has two children and Carol has four. Suppose Bob’s estate plan calls for his $8 million estate to be divided equally between his two children.

When he dies, Ted and Carol each receive $4 million. But after they die, Ted’s two children receive $2 million each from their grandparent’s inheritance, while Carol’s four children receive only $1 million each. (This assumes, of course, that Ted and Carol each preserve the full amount of their inheritances.)

Possible solutions

To help ensure that Bob’s grandchildren are treated equally, he can purchase a life insurance policy, with the proceeds divided equally among his grandchildren. Alternatively, he can arrange policies on the lives of Ted and Carol designed to provide equal amounts to each grandchild. One advantage of this approach is that, because Ted and Carol are younger, the available death benefits would be greater. Bob could use gifts or loans to help Ted and Carol pay the premiums.

Life insurance allows Bob to provide more for his grandchildren, on an equal basis, while still dividing his other assets equally between his children. Depending on how Ted and Carol spend their inheritances, Ted’s children may still receive more than Carol’s on a per capita basis, but the additional assets provided by life insurance will likely make Bob’s estate plan appear “more fair” in the eyes of his grandchildren.

If you have concerns about how to properly address certain family members in your estate plan, please contact us. We’d be happy to assess your situation and offer the proper guidance.

© 2021 Covenant CPA

You may be able to deduct some of your medical expenses, including prescription drugs, on your federal tax return. However, the rules make it hard for many people to qualify. But with proper planning, you may be able to time discretionary medical expenses to your advantage for tax purposes.

Itemizers must meet a threshold

For 2020, the medical expense deduction can only be claimed to the extent your unreimbursed costs exceed 7.5% of your adjusted gross income (AGI). This threshold amount is scheduled to increase to 10% of AGI for 2021. You also must itemize deductions on your return in order to claim a deduction.

If your total itemized deductions for 2020 will exceed your standard deduction, moving or “bunching” nonurgent medical procedures and other controllable expenses into 2020 may allow you to exceed the 7.5% floor and benefit from the medical expense deduction. Controllable expenses include refilling prescription drugs, buying eyeglasses and contact lenses, going to the dentist and getting elective surgery.

In addition to hospital and doctor expenses, here are some items to take into account when determining your allowable costs:

  • Health insurance premiums. This item can total thousands of dollars a year. Even if your employer provides health coverage, you can deduct the portion of the premiums that you pay. Long-term care insurance premiums are also included as medical expenses, subject to limits based on age.
  • Transportation. The cost of getting to and from medical treatments counts as a medical expense. This includes taxi fares, public transportation, or using your own car. Car costs can be calculated at 17¢ a mile for miles driven in 2020, plus tolls and parking. Alternatively, you can deduct certain actual costs, such as for gas and oil.
  • Eyeglasses, hearing aids, dental work, prescription drugs and more. Deductible expenses include the cost of glasses, hearing aids, dental work, psychiatric counseling and other ongoing expenses in connection with medical needs. Purely cosmetic expenses don’t qualify. Prescription drugs (including insulin) qualify, but over-the-counter aspirin and vitamins don’t. Neither do amounts paid for treatments that are illegal under federal law (such as medical marijuana), even if state law permits them. The services of therapists and nurses can qualify as long as they relate to a medical condition and aren’t for general health. Amounts paid for certain long-term care services required by a chronically ill individual also qualify.
  • Smoking-cessation and weight-loss programs. Amounts paid for participating in smoking-cessation programs and for prescribed drugs designed to alleviate nicotine withdrawal are deductible. However, nonprescription nicotine gum and patches aren’t. A weight-loss program is deductible if undertaken as treatment for a disease diagnosed by a physician. Deductible expenses include fees paid to join a program and attend periodic meetings. However, the cost of food isn’t deductible.

Costs for dependents

You can deduct the medical costs that you pay for dependents, such as your children. Additionally, you may be able to deduct medical costs you pay for other individuals, such as an elderly parent. Contact us if you have questions about medical expense deductions.

© 2020 Covenant CPA